Department of Gastrointestinal Diseases, Diet and Nutrition
The Department of Gastric and Duodenal Diseases, Diet and Medical Nutrition began its work in 1965.
Diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract is one of the most pressing problems of modern gastroenterology due to their high prevalence among adults. One of the first scientific directions of the department’s work was the study of pathogenetic mechanisms of gastric and duodenal ulcers, with considerable attention paid to psychosomatic, immunological and hormonal aspects of its formation, assessment of the balance of aggression and defense in gastric juice. To date, some progress has been made in the treatment of this pathology with the discovery in 1982 of B. Marshall and R. Warren Helicobacter pylori, the eradication of which leads to the healing of the ulcer defect and reduce the recurrence of the disease. The study of peptic ulcer disease caused by non-bacterial factors, including the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, other drugs, stress-induced ulcers, microcirculation disorders in the mucous membrane due to vascular diseases, etc. continues.
Considerable attention in the scientific topics of the department is paid to such diseases as gastroesophageal reflux disease, which is manifested by the discharge of acidic stomach contents into the distal esophagus and the development of esophageal and extraesophageal manifestations (laryngotracheal manifestations, bronchial asthma, etc.). The significant increase in the incidence of this disease in the last decade is a global problem. Thus, according to El-Serag H. B. co-authored (2014) who analyzed population-based studies, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease is 18.1% – 27.8% in North America, 8.8% –25.9% in Europe, 2.5% – 7.8% in East Asia , 8.7% – 33.1% in the Middle East, 11.6% in Australia and 23.0% in South Africa.
The result of research in this direction was a number of scientific papers on clinical and pathogenetic substantiation of methods of treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease in combination with peptic ulcer disease, optimization of diagnosis and treatment of refractory forms associated with obesity, development of treatment tactics in combination with dysfunction and dysfunction. sphincter of Oddi. The importance of studying this disease is not only in reducing the quality of life in people with gastroesophageal reflux disease, but also in the development of the so-called Barrett’s esophagus: the emergence of distal changes in the distal esophagus of the mucous membrane of the colon. The importance of timely detection, treatment and proper monitoring of a patient with this diagnosis is due to the risk of adenocarcinoma in 0.1-0.5% of cases. According to the latest data, Barrett’s esophagus is detected in 1-2% of all endoscopies, in 5–15% of patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and in general 0.4% in the population (M. Runge, D. Cameron).
The department’s attention is drawn to one of the most important scientific areas of modern gastroenterology – the study of risk factors for the development, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous gastric conditions (atrophy, intestinal metaplasia) and precancerous changes (dysplasia). The timely detection of early gastric cancer (in situ), timely diagnosis and development of effective methods of treatment of precancerous conditions is one of the highest priorities in the world, given the lack of effective treatments for gastric cancer, which is detected at a later stage.
The scientific topics of the department are performed using the latest method of endoscopic diagnosis with high resolution, which allows for a full examination and provide the most accurate assessment of the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, duodenum at the stage of endoscopic examination. Verification of the diagnosis and morphological diagnosis is performed using modern classifications OLGA (Operative Link on Gastritis Assessment) and OLGIM (Operational Link for Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia Assessment), which meets modern requirements and is promising for further monitoring of the patient and the disease.
During the work of the department 2 doctoral and 9 candidate dissertations were defended.
Employees of the department are the authors and co-authors of many publications and articles, including professional journals, patents, manuals, information letters. Actively participate in and report on the results of scientific work at scientific and practical conferences, congresses, symposiums at the regional, national and international levels.
Department of Gastrointestinal and Duodenal Diseases, Nutrition and Medical Nutrition
The department has 50 beds, ie 17 wards.
Clinical work in the department:
At endoscopic examination, biopsy material must be taken, followed by morphological examination and determination of Helicobacter pylori. A feature of the institute is the ability to clarify the pathogenicity or non-pathogenicity of these microbes, which allows you to make the right decision about the choice of treatment.
Daily pH monitoring is performed, which allows to objectify the diagnosis of “gastroesophageal reflux disease” and choose individual treatment for the patient.
With the help of sonographic research the state of the sphincter apparatus and motor-evacuatory function of the stomach is studied, which increases the purposefulness of therapy.
The long-term direction of the department is the study of psychosomatic features in patients with gastrointestinal pathology through testing to correct them.
Treatment of patients includes diet therapy, medical nutrition, medications, physiotherapy and psychotherapy.
Treatment is carried out in accordance with modern international standards, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient.
The Department of Gastroenterology and Therapy of Postgraduate Education of the Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy has been successfully operating on the basis of the department for many years.
Due to close cooperation with the department, the department has the opportunity to accept patients with a wide range of pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract, combined with other diseases of the internal organs. The department treats patients with viral hepatitis B and C, intestinal diseases such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease, irritable bowel syndrome.
The clinical work of the department and scientific developments are aimed at improving the health of Ukrainians.
Of these, 6 wards for 2 patients, 1 for 1 patient, 8 wards for 4 patients, 2 wards for 3 patients.
The general living conditions are satisfactory.
Тричі на день пацієнтів годують в межах дієтичних столів.